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Accessibility Awareness Training for Educators

AODA (2005)

Revised 2017, Humber College

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Preface

The Centre for Human Rights, Equity & Diversity | HR Services (the Centre) provides leadership by coordinating the fulfillment of Humber College’s legal obligations to the Ontario Human Rights Code, the Employment Equity Act and the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act. To accomplish this mandate, the Centre works with the Humber Community in the following areas:

  • The recognition, prevention, and elimination of systemic barriers to equitable education and employment at the College;
  • The visible promotion of the College’s commitment to equity, diversity and inclusion.

For more information about the AODA or if you have any questions about the training module, please contact Nancy Simms, Director at nancy.simms@humber.ca.

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Goal of the Training

All Humber employees are educators who are responsible for providing an enhanced accessible learning environment for persons with disabilities. The goal of this training is to provide Humber employees with accessibility awareness and skills to design, deliver and/or instruct courses using accessible teaching methods.

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Objectives

  1. Provide an overview of the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) and the Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation (IASR) and their impact on program and course design, delivery and instruction.
  2. Identify barriers that students with disabilities may face in accessing education.
  3. Provide strategies for improving students’ learning experience.
  4. Outline the principles of Universal Design for Learning as a framework for accessible education that may prevent and remove barriers in the learning environment.
  5. Provide resources to assist in increasing accessibility in the classroom.
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Agenda

  1. Humber's Commitment to Accessibility
  2. Supporting Students with Disabilities
  3. Moving from Accommodations to Accessible Education
  4. Considering Universal Design for Learning as a Framework for Accessible Education
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Humber's Commitment to Accessibility

This training will begin with a brief overview of legislative requirements under the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA). The first section will highlight the following:
  1. Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA)
  2. Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation (IASR)
  3. Section 16: Training to Educators
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Humber's Commitment to Accessibility

1Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA)

The Act obliges organizations in the public and private sectors to remove and prevent barriers for people with disabilities in the following five areas:

  • customer service
  • information and communications
  • transportation
  • employment
  • design of public spaces

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Accessibility

2Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA)

  • The Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation (IASR) harmonizes the customer service standards, which became law in 2008, with accessibility standards in the areas of information and communications, employment, transportation and the design of public spaces. Businesses and organizations are required to meet compliance deadlines beginning from 2011 to 2025.
  • The IASR contains specific requirements to ensure accessibility for persons with disabilities to programs, services, courses and facilities provided by educational and training institutions in Ontario, such as colleges.
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Accessibility

3Section 16: Training to Educators

Section 16 of the Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation: Training to Educators requirement states the following:

“… school boards or educational or training institutions shall provide educators with accessibility awareness training related to accessible program or course delivery and instruction.” O. Reg. 191/11, s. (16)

The compliance date for this requirement was January 1, 2013.

Section 16 of the Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation requires Ontario colleges to provide accessibility awareness training to educators and all employees who are involved in course design, delivery and instruction.

This training has been designed to meet Humber’s ongoing obligation under Section 16: Training to Educators requirement.

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Are you committed to increasing accessibility for persons with disabilities?

To enhance your knowledge of supporting students with disabilities,
please proceed to the following slide.

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Supporting Students with Disabilities

This section will review the following:

  1. Definition of disability as defined in the Ontario Human Rights Code
  2. Equal opportunities for and access to learning
  3. Access through individualized accommodations
  4. Providing individual academic accommodations
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1. Definition of Disability

The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) and the Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation (IASR) use the definition of disability contained in the Ontario Human Rights Code which states the following:

A disability may be
• visible
• invisible
• temporary
• permanent
  • Any degree of physical disability, infirmity, malformation or disfigurement caused by bodily injury, birth defect or illness
  • A condition of mental impairment or a developmental disability.
  • A learning disability or a dysfunction in one or more of the processes involved in understanding or using symbols or spoken language.
  • A mental disorder.
  • An injury or disability for which benefits were claimed or received under the insurance plan established under the Workplace Safety & Insurance Act.

Ontario Human Rights Code

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2. Equal Opportunities for and Equal Access to Learning

There are four principles that guide equal opportunities for and equal access to learning for students with disabilities. The four principles are listed below.

Principle Implications
Dignity Dignity means that each student is able to maintain privacy, self-respect and the respect of others. Dignified service means including the needs of persons with disabilities to ensure that they are provided with the same service, quality and convenience as others.
Equity/Equality of Outcome Equity/equality of outcome means having the same chances, options, benefits and results as others through equitable means. In the case of services, it means that persons with disabilities have the same opportunity as others to benefit from the equitable way that education is provided.

* Table continued on next page

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2. Equal Opportunities for and Equal Access to Learning

Principle Implications
Independence Independence means that every student is able to do things on their own without unnecessary help, or interference from others. For example, a staff member should not take over a task from a student with a disability who moves or speaks more slowly than others, unless requested.
Integration Integration means that every student is able to benefit from the same education, in the same place and in the same or similar way as others. For example, repeat students’ questions and allow only one person to speak at a time. This will reduce auditory stimuli that can confuse students with mental health and learning disabilities, as well as vision and hearing loss.
Humber College is committed to providing all its service in accordance with the principles outlined above, including the provision of academic accommodation.
Source: Understanding the AODA and the Accessibility Standards for Customer Service. Accessibility in Teaching Strategies and Requirements for Supporting an Accessible Learning Environment
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3. Access Through Individualized Academic Accommodations

Students with disabilities have the right to academic accommodations that meet their individual needs. The Ontario Human Rights Code (Code) provides for equal rights and opportunities and freedom from discrimination for persons with disabilities.

As required by the Code, colleges already provide individual academic accommodations, such as adaptive measures or supports, to give students with disabilities equitable access to the same education as others in their program of study.

Common examples of academic accommodations include:

  • extending the time allotted for a test
  • arranging for a note-taker during classes
  • using text-to-voice translation software for course materials.
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4. Protocol for Accommodating Students with Disabilities

Providing academic accommodations is a shared responsibility between the education providers and the student with a disability. Each party has a responsibility to cooperatively engage in the accommodation process, share information, and participate in the development of potential accommodation solutions. The table below outlines the responsibilities that the education providers and students with disabilities have during the accommodation process.

Education providers have a responsibility to: Students with disabilities have a
responsibility to:
interact with students in a non-discriminatory manner register with Accessible Learning Services if they wish to receive academic accommodations
put in place appropriate effective and dignified accommodation processes advise Accessible Learning Services of the need for accommodation
engage in meaningful dialogue about accommodation, and seek expert assistance as needed participate in discussion regarding possible accommodation solutions
engage in the accommodation process meet curriculum standards, once the accommodation is provided
maintain student confidentiality work with the assigned Accessibility Consultant on an ongoing basis to manage the accommodation process
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4. Protocol for Accommodating Students with Disabilities

Students who register with Accessible Learning Services will meet with an Accessibility Consultant. Based on their interaction with the student and expertise in the area of disability and higher education, the Accessibility Consultant will determine if there is a disability-related need for academic accommodations.

In most cases, once the need for academic accommodations has been established, the Accessibility Consultant will be able to recommend appropriate accommodations. At this stage, the Accessibility Consultant will develop an accommodation plan and prepare an Accommodation Letter.

The recommended accommodation(s) will be communicated to faculty via an accommodation letter from the Accessibility Consultant. Sometimes students opt to have Accessible Learning Services send this letter directly to faculty and sometimes students wish to communicate with faculty directly. This is their choice.

Faculty are encouraged to contact the Accessibility Consultant if they have questions regarding the accommodation letter. When students wish to enact particular accommodations, such as using Testing Services to complete a test or exam, they must notify their faculty.

It is important to remember that the educational providers have the right to know about the accommodation needs of their students, but students have the right to keep the nature of their disability confidential.
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4. Protocol for Accommodating Students with Disabilities

For more information on arranging academic accommodations for students with disabilities, contact Accessible Learning Services:

North Campus, Guelph-Humber, Carrier Drive & Orangeville:

Lakeshore Campus:

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Remember…

You only need to know what accommodation the student requires in your course; you do not need to know about the nature of the disability itself.

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Moving From Accommodation to Accessible Education

This section of the training will address the following:

  1. The establishment of accessibility standards to prevent and remove barriers
  2. Strategies to prevent and remove barriers in the learning environment
  3. Building on principles of effective teaching and learning
  4. Proactive approach to preventing and removing barriers in the learning environment
  5. Advantages of Accessible Education
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1. The Establishment of Accessibility Standards to Prevent
and Remove Barriers

The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act emphasizes developing, implementing and enforcing standards for accessibility to promote inclusivity and reduce the potential for discrimination. Developing accessibility standards helps to reduce or eliminate barriers that students with disabilities may encounter.

A barrier is an obstacle that impedes, blocks, prevents, or stops a person with a disability from fully participating in society.
Accessibility describes the extent to which all intended populations are able to use a product, device, service, facility and physical environment.
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1. The Establishment of Accessibility Standards to Prevent
and Remove Barriers

Identified barriers to accessibility fall in to five categories.

Attitudinal Organizational Technology Information & Communications Architectural/Physical

These barriers to accessibility can impact the learning environment.

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2. Strategies to Prevent and Remove Barriers in the Learning Environment

The table below outlines the five categories of barriers to accessibility and ways that accommodations can be implemented to increase accessibility in the classroom.

Barriers to Accessibility Implementing Accommodations
1. Attitudinal: Treating accommodation as a special favour. 1. Understanding the importance of Humber's vision for all students's academic success and therefore implement accommodations willingly
2. Organizational: Holding office hours only in person in a set location. 2. Providing office hours in multiple formats, for example, face to face, telephone, and email.
3. Architectural/Physical: A classroom that is difficult for a student in a wheelchair to navigate. 3. Consulting with the student to determine the location in the classroom that is best for them.
4. Information and Communications: Lectures that are poorly organized; using language that is unclear. 4. Ensuring lectures are organized, use clear language and provide multiple ways of accessing information such as printed notes and visual aids.
5. Technology: Documents without features to provide access to information presented in images. 5. Ensuring alternate formats of distributed information are readily available. Describe all visual representations of information, such as pictures or graphs during the lecture

Moving from providing accommodations to increasing accessibility throughout the learning environment involves building upon the principles of effective teaching and learning through the lens of accessible education.

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3. Building on Principles of Effective Teaching and Learning

Accessible education builds on principles of effective teaching and learning. Many of you may already be using some of the principles of accessible education, as outlined below:

  • Accessible education anticipates that students have diverse learning styles
  • Accessible education considers the learning needs of all students when designing curriculum, courses, materials and instruction.
  • Accessible education minimizes barriers to learning and thereby reduces the need for individual accommodations.
  • Accessible education integrates equity through the learning environment.
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4. Proactive Approach to Preventing and Removing
Barriers in the Learning Environment

Accessible education takes a proactive approach to preventing and removing barriers in the postsecondary sector. The table below outlines some of the differences between accommodation and accessible education.

Accommodation Accessible Education
Access to learning is an individual issue centred around disability. Access to learning is a collective issue centred around design.
Access should be addressed by the student and the Accessible Learning Services office. Access should be addressed by the designer of the learning experience.
Access is achieved retroactively through accommodations or retrofits. Access is achieved by designing the learning experience to be accessible for and by all.
Access is often provided through individualized accommodation. Access is provided through equitable means.
Access is reconsidered for each student. Access is sustainable because it is built into the learning experience.

Moving from providing accommodations to increasing accessibility throughout the learning environment involves building upon the principles of effective teaching and learning through the lens of accessible education.

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5. Advantages of Accessible Education

Accessible education allows students with disabilities to focus on learning in an inclusive environment.

Some of the advantages for students are:

  1. Increases retention.
  2. Increases academic success
  3. Increases a person’s sense of dignity and integration in their learning environment.
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5. Advantages of Accessible Education

The use of an Accessible Education framework complements effective teaching practices to enhance student learning.

Some advantages for educators are:

  1. Identify and remove barriers proactively in the learning environment before they negatively impact students; thus improving overall student engagement.
  2. Modify the approach to course design and instruction to enhance the learning experience for all students.
  3. Focus on the development of accessible curriculum for all students.
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Remember…

When you integrate an accessible education framework for students with disabilities, it creates an inclusive learning environment where everybody benefits.

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Considering Universal Design for Learning (UDL) as a Framework for Accessible Education

The final section of the training will provide an overview of the following:

  1. Universal Design for Learning
  2. The seven principles of Universal Design for Learning
  3. The principles of Universal Design for Learning in Action
  4. Multiple approaches to teaching and learning using Universal Design for Learning
  5. Advantages of Universal Design for Learning
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1. Universal Design for Learning

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) involves considering the potential needs of all learners when designing and delivering course instruction to ensure a high degree of accessibility to subject matter and instruction.

UDL is an example of an effective framework for accessible education. UDL is not a new concept. Educators have been using UDL principles for years as they are a fundamental part of Adult Education Programs. The bulleted points below outline some of the main elements of UDL:

  • UDL emphasizes flexible curriculum and teaching materials to instruct different students differently.
  • UDL uses multiple modes of engaging students, presenting content and assessing comprehension.
  • UDL utilizes evolving communication technology to maximize learning opportunities for all students.
UDL is guided by seven principles
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2. The Seven Principles of Universal Design for Learning

The seven principles of Universal Design for Learning centre around the observation that individuals have a range of abilities and that an individual’s abilities change over time. Incorporating the seven principles (outlined below) during the preliminary stages of course design will increase accessibility in learning for all students, including students with disabilities.

  1. Be accessible and fair.
  2. Provide flexibility in use, participation and presentation.
  3. Be straightforward and consistent.
  4. Ensure information is explicitly presented and readily perceived.
  5. Provide a supportive learning environment.
  6. Minimize unnecessary physical effort or requirements.
  7. Ensure the learning space fits students’ needs and instructional materials.

Please proceed to the following slide for more details about the seven principles.

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3. Principles of Universal Design for Learning in Action

The table below describes how the seven principles of Universal Design for Learning can be implemented.

Principle Examples
Be accessible and fair. Provide accessibility-checked course website; supply lecture outlines; use variety of media to provide information.
Provide flexibility in use, participation and presentation. Use verbal, text, images, audio; use discussion or problem-solving exercises; post exercises and quizzes online.
Be straightforward and consistent. Use headings consistently; develop concept maps for complex topics, use plain language.
Be explicitly presented and readily perceived. Ensure PowerPoint materials are easy to read; provide outlines and summaries.

* Table continued on next slide

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3. Principles of Universal Design for Learning in Action

Principle Examples
Provide a supportive learning environment. Expect students to have varying levels of skills; offer collaborative learning opportunities; review drafts of assignments.
Minimize unnecessary physical effort or requirements. Minimize clicking and scrolling on websites; consider lighting, physical space; have students work in pairs; provide remote access to reading material.
Ensure learning spaces fit students’ needs and instructional materials. Match exercises to course technology; provide videotapes for review; ensure space accommodates mobility and communication needs.
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Remember…

The Seven Principles of Universal Design for Learning increase accessibility for all students.


  1. Be accessible and fair.
  2. Provide flexibility in use, participation and presentation.
  3. Be straightforward and consistent.
  4. Ensure information is explicitly presented and readily perceived.
  5. Provide a supportive learning environment.
  6. Minimize unnecessary physical effort or requirements.
  7. Ensure the learning space fits students’ needs and instructional materials.
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4. Multiple Approaches to Teaching and Learning Using Universal Design for Learning

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) uses multiple ways to engage and motivate students. Provided below are three ways that UDL anticipates the myriad of learning styles in the classroom.


  1. UDL builds on the concept that a single teaching style may not work for a classroom of students. For example, incorporating active reading strategies such as encouraging students to identify and define any unfamiliar terms, or to write a summary of the chapter or article.
  2. UDL addresses the needs of different learners during the design stage. For example, use videos to supplement or replace readings.
  3. UDL incorporates active learning by building in more interaction between professor and students. For example, providing opportunities for students to change tasks or activities during class through learning activities such as role play, peer review, discussion, or game based learning.
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4. Multiple Approaches to Teaching and Learning Using Universal Design for Learning

Universal Design for Learning emphasizes multiple methods of presenting material so students have several ways to access information. Below are some examples of presenting information in a number of ways to enhance student learning:

  • Posting materials on a course website
  • Using a variety of visuals and visual aids
  • Supplying audio to supplement text
  • Using social media or online discussions boards
  • Staging interactive demonstrations

UDL also utilizes advances in technology as a way to enhance accessible education.

Please proceed to the next slide for more information.

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4. Multiple Approaches to Teaching and Learning Using Universal Design for Learning

Universal Design for Learning encourages the use of new and emerging technologies to enhance learning for all students.

  • Technology builds on advances in wireless technology and uses technology as a tool in the accessible learning environment.
  • Technology offers opportunities to use tools to teach students in multiple ways, such as:
    • smart phones
    • laptops
    • scanning devices
    • digital recorders
    • screen readers
    • assistive listening devices

The effective use of technology delivers benefits to all students.

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5. Advantages of Universal Design for Learning

Universal Design for Learning provides for multiple means of expression to give students alternative ways of demonstrating their knowledge. The advantages of UDL are well known, and some are outlined below.

Advantages of Universal Design for Learning:

  1. Recognizes that everyone sees, hears and reads information in many ways.
  2. Maximizes student learning by increasing the ways students are presented with the opportunity to see, hear and read information. Provides students with a variety of ways to demonstrate their understanding and mastery of a topic.
  3. Reaches more students more effectively by broadening the presentation approach.
  4. Promotes deeper learning by expanding presentation style beyond traditional lecturing.
  5. Encourages educators to use a variety of ways to evaluate students’ comprehension.
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Summary

1Humber's Commitment to Accessibility

The first section of this training module provided an overview of the following:

The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act and the Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulations (IASR) and outlined the requirement for educators in relation to program and course design, delivery and instruction.

Section 16 of the IASR: Training to Educators states the following:
“… school boards or educational or training institutions shall provide educators with accessibility awareness training related to accessible program or course delivery and instruction.” O. Reg. 191/11, s. (16)
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Summary

2Supporting Students with Disabilities

The second section of the training module provided the following:

  • The definition of disability as outlined in the Human Rights Code.
  • The four key principles underlying the Integrated Accessibility Standard: Dignity, Equity/Equality of Outcome, Independence and Integration. These four principles support equal opportunities for and equal access to learning for students with disabilities.
  • Overview of College’s obligation to provide academic accommodations under the Human Rights Code.
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Summary

3 Moving from Accommodation to Accessible Education

The third section of the training module outlined the following:

  • How establishing and implementing accessibility standards may prevent and remove barriers for students with disabilities in the postsecondary environment.
  • The five categories of barriers to accessibility as well as ways that accommodations can be implemented to prevent and remove barriers in the learning environment.
  • How the principles of effective teaching and learning take a proactive approach to move beyond providing individualized accommodations to an accessible education framework that benefits all students.
  • The advantages of accessible education for students and educators.
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Summary

4 Considering Universal Design for Learning as a Framework for Accessible Education

The final section of the training module provided an overview of the following:

  • The seven principles of Universal Design for Learning.
  • Universal Design for Learning (UDL) involves considering the potential needs of all learners when designing and delivering course instruction to ensure a high degree of accessibility to subject matter and instruction.
  • The multiple approaches to teaching and learning that create and maintain an accessible learning environment that fosters the success of all students, including students with disabilities.
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Resources on Accessible Education

Print

Videos

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Glossary

* The information in this glossary was adapted from the Council of Ontario Universities and revised by the Centre for Human Rights, Equity & Diversity | HR Services

Accessibility
Accessibility is the degree to which persons with disabilities can access a device, service or environment without barriers. Accessibility is also a process – it is the proactive identification, removal and prevention of barriers to persons with disabilities.
Accessibility standards
An accessibility standard is a rule that persons and organizations have to follow to identify, remove and prevent barriers. Each institution must ensure that its policies, practices and procedures address the requirements of Ontario’s accessible customer service standard, and ensure that they are consistent with the principles of dignity, equal opportunity, independence and integration.
Dignity
Providing service with dignity means the customer maintains his or her self-respect and the respect of other people. Dignified service means not treating persons with disabilities as an afterthought or forcing them to accept lesser service, quality or convenience.
Equal opportunity
Equal opportunity means having the same chances, options, benefits and results as others. In the case of services, it means that persons with disabilities have the same opportunity as others to benefit from the way you provide goods or services.
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Glossary

Independence
Ensuring people are able to do things on their own without unnecessary help, or interference from others.
Integration
Integration means providing service in a way that allows the person with a disability to benefit from the same services, in the same place and in the same or similar way as other customers.
Accommodation
Accommodation is an individualized and reactive adaptation or adjustment made to provide a person with a disability with equitable and non-discriminatory opportunities for participation. Appropriate and reasonable accommodation is determined based on an individualized assessment of the interaction between the student’s disability and required tasks. Accommodation is not treatment or rehabilitation.
Alternative format
Alternative format refers to the conversion of printed text, audio or video files into formats more easily accessed by persons with disabilities.
Audio format
Audio is an alternative format for persons with a vision, intellectual or developmental or learning disability, or who cannot read print. Labels should be prepared in large, high-contrast print and Braille.
Braille
Braille is an alternative format for persons who are blind or deafblind. It is a tactile system of raised dots representing letters or a combination of letters of the alphabet. Braille is produced using Braille transcription software.
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Glossary

Captioning
Captioning translates the audio portion of a video presentation by way of subtitles, or captions, which usually appear on the bottom of the screen. Captioning may be closed or open. Closed captions can only be seen on a television screen that is equipped with a device called a closed caption decoder. Open captions are “burned on” a video and appear whenever the video is shown. Captioning makes television programs, films and other visual media with sound accessible to persons who are deaf or hard of hearing.
Electronic text
Electronic text is used with screen reading software that allows persons who are blind, have low vision or who have learning disabilities to hear a spoken translation of what others see on the monitor.
Large print
Large print is an alternative format for persons who have low vision. Large print materials should be prepared with a font (print) size that is 16 to 20 points or larger.
Assistive device
An assistive device is a tool, technology or mechanism that enables a person with a disability to do everyday tasks such as moving, communicating or lifting. Assistive devices help persons with disabilities maintain their independence at home, at work and in the community.
Digital audio player
An assistive device that enables a person to listen to books, directions, et cetera.
FM transmitter system
An assistive device used by persons who are Deaf, deafened, oral deaf or hard of hearing to help boost sound closest to the listener while reducing background noise.
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Glossary

Hearing aid
An assistive device that makes sound louder and clearer for persons who are Deaf, deafened, oral deaf or hard of hearing.
Magnifier
An assistive device that makes print and images larger and easier to read.
Mobility Device
An assistive device that helps persons who have difficulty walking. Examples include wheelchairs, scooters, walkers, canes and crutches.
Personal data manager
An assistive device that helps a person store, organize and retrieve information.
Portable global positioning systems (GPS)
An assistive device that helps orient people to get to specific destinations.
Speech generating device
These assistive devices are used to pass on a message using a device that “speaks” when a symbol, word, or pictures is pressed.
Teletypewriter (TTY)
An assistive device that helps persons who are unable to speak or hear to communicate by phone. The person types their message on the TTY keyboard, and the message is sent using telephone lines to someone who has a TTY, or to an operator who passes the message along to someone who does not have a TTY.
White cane
An assistive device that helps persons who are blind or have vision loss to find their way around obstacles.
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Glossary

Barrier
A barrier is anything that prevents someone from participating fully in society because of their disability.
Attitudinal barrier
This barrier is about what we think and how we interact with persons with disabilities. It is perhaps the most difficult barrier to overcome because our attitudes – based on our beliefs, knowledge, previous experience and education – can be hard to change. For instance, some people worry about offending someone by offering help and deal with this by ignoring or avoiding persons with disabilities.
Architectural or structural barrier
Architectural or structural barriers may result from design elements of a building such as stairs, doorways, the width of hallways and room layout. These barriers may also occur through everyday practices, such as when we store boxes or other objects in hallways, obstructing accessible pathways.
Information or communications barrier
Information or communication barriers, such as small print size, low colour contrast between text and background or not facing the person when speaking, can make it difficult to receive or convey information.
Systemic barrier
Systemic barriers can result from an organization’s policies, practices and procedures if they restrict persons with disabilities, often unintentionally, as in the case with setting requirements such as full course loads in establishing eligibility for services such as residences, scholarships and honours listing.
Technological barrier
Technology, or the lack of it, can prevent people from accessing information. Common tools like computers, telephones and other aids can all present barriers if they are not set up or designed with accessibility in mind.
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Glossary

Disability
The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, (AODA) uses the Ontario Human Rights Code definition of “disability”, which includes physical, mental health, developmental and learning disabilities.
A disability may be visible or non-visible, as follows:
a) Any degree of physical disability, infirmity, malformation or disfigurement that is caused by bodily injury, birth defect or illness and (...) includes diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, a brain injury, any degree of paralysis, amputation, lack of physical coordination, blindness or visual impediment, deafness or hearing impediment, muteness or speech impediment, or physical reliance on a guide dog or other animal or on a wheelchair or other remedial appliance or device,
b) A condition of mental impairment or a development disability,
c) A learning disability, or dysfunction in one or more of the processes involved in understanding or using symbols or spoken language,
d) A mental disorder, or
e) An injury or disability for which benefits were claimed or received under the insurance plan established under the Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, 1997.
Deafblind
A person who is deafblind can neither see nor hear to some degree. Many persons who are deafblind are accompanied by an intervenor. Intervenors are individuals who are trained in special sign language that involves touching the person’s hands in a two-hand, manual alphabet.
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Glossary

Hearing loss
Persons who have hearing loss may be deaf or hard of hearing. Like other disabilities, hearing loss has a wide range of degrees. Persons who are partially deaf often use hearing aids to assist their hearing. Deaf persons may also use sign language to communicate. While American Sign Language and Quebec Sign Language (LSQ, or Langue des signes Québécoise) are commonly used in Ontario, not everyone with hearing loss uses them.
Deaf
In Deaf culture, indicated by a capital “D”, the term “Deaf” is used to describe a person who has severe to profound hearing loss and who identifies with the culture, society and language of Deaf persons, which is based on Sign Language. Persons who are profoundly deaf may identify themselves as culturally Deaf or oral deaf.
Deafened
This term describes a person who has lost their hearing slowly or suddenly in adulthood. The person may use speech with visual cues such as captioning or computerized note-taking, speech reading or sign language.
Hard of hearing
This term describes a person who uses his or her residual hearing and speech to communicate. The person may supplement communication by speech reading, hearing aids, sign language and/or communication devices.
Oral deaf
This term describes a person who was born deaf or became deaf before learning to speak, but is taught to speak and may not typically use American Sign Language.
Intellectual or developmental disability
Persons with intellectual or developmental disabilities may have difficulty doing many things most of us take for granted. These disabilities can mildly or profoundly limit one’s ability to learn. These disabilities are often non-visible.
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Glossary

Learning disability
The term “learning disabilities” refers to a range of disorders that affect how persons process information. Learning disabilities can result in reading and language-based learning problems (dyslexia), problems with mathematics (dyscalculia), or problems with writing (dysgraphia). Learning disabilities affect people from all backgrounds and are not a result of culture, language or lack of motivation. Persons with learning disabilities just learn differently, and have average to above average intelligence.
Mental health disability
Mental health disabilities (also referred to as mental illness) include schizophrenia, depression, phobias, as well as bipolar, anxiety and mood disorders. Mental illness is often episodic, so a person who has a psychological disability may not have symptoms all the time, and a person who has experienced an episode of mental illness in the past will not necessarily have a repeat experience.
Non-visible disability
Non-visible disabilities include a wide range of impairments that may not be immediately noticeable, such as a learning disability, vision or hearing loss, medical conditions like diabetes or multiple sclerosis.
Physical disability
There are many types and degrees of physical disabilities that can affect a person’s mobility. The cause of the mobility disability may be non-visible, as in the case with arthritis, heart and lung conditions.
Speech or language impairment
Some people have problems communicating. It could be the result of cerebral palsy, hearing loss or another condition that makes it difficult to pronounce words, causes slurring or stuttering, or not being able to express oneself or understand written or spoken language. Some persons who have severe difficulties may use communication boards or other assistive devices.
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Glossary

Vision loss
Vision loss reduces a person’s ability to see clearly. Few persons with vision loss are totally blind. Some have limited vision such as tunnel vision, where a person has a loss of peripheral or side vision, or a lack of central vision, which means they cannot see straight ahead. Some can see the outline of objects while others can see the direction of light. Some common causes of vision disabilities are scratched corneas, diabetes-related eye conditions, injuries and corneal grafts.
Duty to accommodate
The duty to accommodate relates to the legal responsibility to provide appropriate accommodations to persons with disabilities.
Inclusion
Inclusion is engaging differences to create a culture of belonging in which people are valued and honoured for the improvement of our society, world and enterprises. Inclusive behaviours are those practices and behaviours that leverage and honour the uniqueness of people’s different talents, beliefs and ways of living.
Service animal
An animal is a service animal if, (a) the animal can be readily identified as one that is being used by the person for reasons relating to their disability, as a result of visual indicators such as a vest or harness worn by the animal; or (b) the person provides documentation by a regulated health professional confirming that they require the animal for reasons relating to their disability.
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Glossary

Undue hardship
Organizations are required to accommodate someone with a disability to the point of undue hardship. There are only three factors to consider in assessing undue hardship: cost, outside sources of funding and health and safety requirements, if any.
Universal Design for Learning
Universal design is an approach to designing course instruction, materials, and content to benefit people of all learning styles without adaptation or retrofitting. Universal Design does not remove academic challenges; it removes barriers to access.
53

Glossary

Effective Teaching and Learning Principles (1-4)

These following twelve principles are intended as guidelines to educators and administrators interested in the improvement of teaching and learning.

  1. Instructors' knowledge of the subject matter is essential to the implementation of important teaching tasks. Educators who know their subject matter thoroughly can be more effective and efficient at organizing the subject matter, connecting the subject with the students' previous experience and knowledge, finding useful analogies and examples, presenting current thinking on the subject, and establishing appropriate emphases.
  2. Active involvement of the learner enhances learning. Learning is an active process which requires that the learner work with and apply new material to past knowledge and to everyday life. Some of the methods that encourage active learning in the classroom are: discussion, practice sessions, structured exercises, team projects, and research projects. In the words of William James: Teaching without an accompanying experience is like filling a lamp with water. Something has been poured in, but the result is not illuminating.
  3. Interaction between educators and students is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. Interaction between students and educators, particularly informal interaction, is one of most important factors in student motivation for learning. The opportunity to know a few instructors well often enhances students' intellectual commitment and provides valuable role modeling.
  4. Students benefit from taking responsibility for their learning. Students are more motivated when they take control of their own learning. This is the belief which has stimulated active interest in self-directed learning.
54

Glossary

Effective Teaching and Learning Principles (5-8)

These following twelve principles are intended as guidelines to educators and administrators interested in the improvement of teaching and learning.

  1. There are many roads to learning. Students learn in different ways and vary in their abilities to perform certain tasks. Understanding that each student has unique strengths and weaknesses related to the ways in which they approach learning is an important component of effective education. Providing a variety of learning activities for a class enables individual students to choose the activity which is the most effective for them at the moment.
  2. Expect more and you will achieve more. Simply stated, if an educator conveys to students that they believe in their ability to succeed, learning is enhanced.
  3. Learning is enhanced in an atmosphere of cooperation. Learning is enhanced when it is perceived as a collaborative and cooperative effort between students. The opportunity to share ideas without threat of ridicule and the freedom to respond to the ideas of others increases complexity of thinking and deepens understanding.
  4. Material must be meaningful. If new material is presented in a pattern or framework that the learner can perceive, it is more readily learned and retained. New material will be more easily learned if the learner is helped to see its relationship to what they already know. Material which is seen by the learner as relevant to their own problems and experiences will be more readily learned.
55

Glossary

Effective Teaching and Learning Principles (9-12)

These following twelve principles are intended as guidelines to educators and administrators interested in the improvement of teaching and learning.

  1. Both teaching and learning are enhanced by descriptive feedback. Without feedback neither learner nor educator can improve because they will not know what they need to know or to what extent they are fulfilling their goals. The learners' behavior will more quickly reach the objectives if they are informed (or given feedback) frequently about the correctness of their responses. Correct responses should be immediately reinforced to increase the "permanence" of learning. A positive reinforcer is anything that will increase the probability that the desired behavior will be repeated. A smile or comment to let the learner know they have successfully completed the task is especially good because awareness of successful completion is, in itself, the most effective of all reinforcers. Feedback about progress is helpful because learning is facilitated when the learner is aware that they are progressing towards the goals.
  2. Critical feedback is only useful if the learner has alternatives to pursue. There is no use giving feedback about a learners performances unless they can do something about it, that is, unless they have some alternative course of action or behaviour.
  3. Time plus energy equals learning. Being around for a few minutes afterwards, provides opportunities for valuable interaction between students and educators. Office hours also help students to arrange time to talk with educators. Students must learn how to organize their time so that they can find time to study. And the curriculum must be organized to allow students time to study.
  4. Experience usually improves teaching. Experience is associated with increasing educator effectiveness especially for those educators who obtain feedback about their teaching and who are flexible enough to modify their methods in response to the feedback.
56

Acknowledgements

This training was originally developed by the following colleges and was revised by the
Centre for Human Rights, Equity and Diversity at Humber College.

George Brown College Olga Dosis, Project Lead
Algonquin College Karen Coffey, Advisor
La Cité Collégiale Danielle Gravel, HR Consultant
Seneca College Ingrid Ali, Diversity and Equity Consultant
St. Lawrence College Eleanor Condra, First Generation Coordinator, Professor Community Services
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Certificate of Completion - Accessibility Awareness Training for Educators

Please login below to save and submit your certificate of completion to the Centre for Human Rights, Equity and Diversity

To save your certificate: right click on the certificate, click on "Print", change printer to "Save as PDF", press "Save" to save PDF your computer. Next, email the certificate PDF to humanrights@humber.ca.

To complete your training you must key in your Humber username (example N123456789) and password, the same credentials used to access other technical services at Humber, and click the button above. Please contact your host School or Department for your username and initial password. Contact the Support Center if you require login assistance.

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Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation
Information and Communications Standards (s. 16, O. Reg. 191/11)

Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning has adopted accessibility standards in accordance with Ontario Regulation 191/11 in its delivering of education.

This training complies with the regulatory requirements for colleges to provide educators with accessibility awareness training. It includes introductory information related to accessible program or course delivery and instruction. As an educator at Humber College Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning, you are required to acknowledge that you have received, understood and completed this training.

I acknowledge that I have read and understood the information above, and that I have received and completed the required training.

 
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